Most exchange admins should be familiar with this error message by now. I ran a clean install of Exchange 2010 SP1 RTM, only to find this error message.
MSExchange Transport failed to reach status “running” on this server.
The cause is the same, as in previous versions. Check my previous article for more info. This happens when IPv6 is unchecked in the TCP/IP properties of the NIC, but not disabled fully in registry. This issue was fixed in the previous version rollups, but is now back with 2010 SP1 RTM.
I checked IPv6 in the TCP/IP properties of my NIC, re-run the setup and everything went smooth.